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January 22, 2020


Influenza and flu season – Dr. Sonja Raleva

Winter is a time that increases the number of doctor visits. The reason for colds and flu in winter is cold weather and indoors. As a species, people adapt to and depend on the cold because it strengthens the immune system and the immune system against other serious illnesses. Causes of influenza and flu are viruses, and 80% of rhino viruses cause upper respiratory tract infections, coronaviruses, adenovirus influenza viruses. The virus spreads more rapidly when immune system fails, such as exposure to cold air, daily variation in temperature (getting out of hot to cold), poor clothing, polluted air, mental and physical stress, poor nutrition that can lead to colds. It is common for a healthy adult to get sick twice a year, and for children it is 6 to 12 times different.

Why do children get sick more easily?

On average children younger than three years get colds 6 to 8 times a year because of their immature immune system and their inability to cope with the viruses they encounter for the first time. Children do not know how to wipe or swell their nose, cough and sneeze and viruses end up in their toys, clothes and etc. Outdoor viruses can survive up to 30 minutes. Frequent colds in early life can protect the child in late life. Scientists have found that children who are more likely to get sick at preschool age have fewer illnesses during school days. This is because the immune system has learned to recognize and fight viruses.

For colds, the disease begins abruptly after a brief incubation of one to three days with a mild throat sensation, a feeling of choked or poisoned nose, frequent sneezing, and then a runny nose. The disease is characterized by normal body temperature or slightly elevated but not higher than 38 degrees. Symptoms of inflammation vary depending on the patient’s immune system and depend on the virulence of the cause. At first a dry cough occurs and then it becomes productive.

Symptoms Frequency

Throat pain                                                          Often

Stuffy nose                 Often

Nasal leak                                                  Often

Cough                                                                         Often

Snort                                                                      Often

Rhinitis                                                                        Often

Vertigo Occasionally

Fatigue                                                                       Occasionally

Muscle pain                                              Occasionally

Главоболка                                                                Seldom

Fever                                                                              Seldom

Unlike the common cold, the flu has a high fever of over 38 degrees Celsius, general pain, muscle and joint pain, headache, long-lasting and persistent cough.

Causes of the flu are three types of ABC viruses and their variations. It is epidemic. Man is infected three to five days after the onset of symptoms.

It is transmitted by droplet (by inhalation of small drops from the area of the diseased and infected person), either directly or indirectly (by touching door handles, work surfaces). For this reason, it is recommended to stay confined in crowded indoors such as sports facilities, cinemas, theaters, halls, indoor shopping centers. Prohibition of sick children in kindergarten and school while the illness lasts.


There are great and simple ways to reduce the risk of colds and flu. It is important to know that these methods cannot replace the flu vaccine,

  1. Wash your hands with soap and water for 30 seconds.
  2. Wipe hands with clean disposable paper towels.
  3. Ventilation of rooms at home, especially in kindergartens and schools, reduced walking distance to hospitals and health facilities.
  4. Sleep at least 7 (seven) hours a day.
  5. Feet heated. Warm feet reduce the risk of viruses by 67%. Scientists have found that cold feet constrict blood vessels in the sinuses, reducing the amount of white blood cells that participate in defense, thereby increasing the risk of infection.
  6. Cropped nails. It is very trendy to wear long nails more recently which increases the risk of collecting germs under the nails.
  7. Reduced intake of alcohol and cigarettes. Although a glass of wine has excellent health benefits, excessive alcohol reduces the ability of white blood cells to protect themselves against infection for the next 24 hours.
  8. Drinking hot drinks (chamomile tea, mint, thyme, cranberry, flax and others).
  9. Intake of a balanced diet rich in protein, vitamins of the (C-vitamin), A and D vitamins, drinking supplements such as zinc and selenium.
  10. Let’s not hug and kiss the kids for a good night.

Do not take antibiotics on your own without a doctor’s recommendation. The intake must be strictly controlled.